Find out what all happened in the first half of the 1. century

The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time. (1. January 45. BC)

The Roman Senate posthumously deifies Julius Caesar (1. January 42. BC)

Julius Caesar defeats Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. (4. January 46. BC)

Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. (10. January 49. BC)

The Western Han Dynasty ends when Wang Mang claims that the divine Mandate of Heaven called for the end of the dynasty and the beginning of his own, the Xin Dynasty. (10. January 9)

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus is granted the title Augustus by the Roman Senate, marking the beginning of the Roman Empire. (16. January 27. BC)

Octavian divorces his wife Scribonia and marries Livia Drusilla, ending the fragile peace between the Second Triumvirate and Sextus Pompey. (17. January 38. BC)

Roman Emperor Caligula, known for his eccentricity and sadistic despotism, is assassinated by his disgruntled Praetorian Guards. The Guard then proclaims Caligula's uncle Claudius as Emperor (24. January 41)

After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate. (25. January 41)

The Roman Emperor Augustus is named Pontifex Maximus, incorporating the position into that of the Emperor. (6. March 12. BC)

Casca and Cassius decide, on the night before the Assassination of Julius Caesar, that Mark Antony should stay alive. (14. March 44. BC)

Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus and several other Roman senators on the Ides of March. (15. March 44. BC)

In his last victory, Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger in the Battle of Munda. (17. March 45. BC)

The Roman Senate annulled Tiberius's will and proclaimed Caligula emperor. (18. March 37)

Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. (28. March 37)

Julius Caesar defeats Caecilius Metellus Scipio and Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger) in the battle of Thapsus. (6. April 46. BC)

Battle of Forum Gallorum: Mark Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeats the forces of the consul Pansa, but is then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius. (14. April 43. BC)

Battle of Mutina: Mark Antony is again defeated in battle by Aulus Hirtius, who is killed. Antony fails to capture Mutina and Decimus Brutus is murdered shortly after. (21. April 43. BC)

Lucius Marcius Philippus, step-brother to the future emperor Augustus, celebrates a triumph for his victories while serving as governor in one of the provinces of Hispania. (27. April 33. BC)

A sunspot is observed by Han Dynasty astronomers during the reign of Emperor Cheng of Han, one of the earliest dated sunspot observations in China. (10. May 23)

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