Find out what all happened in the first half of the 13. century

Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans. (6. January 1205)

Terra Mariana, comprising present-day Estonia and Latvia, is established. (2. February 1207)

The Mongols burn the Russian city of Vladimir. (8. February 1238)

Seventh Crusade: Crusaders engage Ayyubid forces in the Battle of Al Mansurah. (8. February 1250)

Andrew of Longjumeau is dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khagan of the Mongol Empire. (16. February 1249)

The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. (18. February 1229)

Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland, is granted resignation after confessing to torture and forgery. (21. February 1245)

Mongol–Jin War: The Mongols capture Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin Dynasty, after besieging it for months. (26. February 1233)

The Siege of Jaén ends in the context of the Spanish Reconquista resulting in the Castilian takeover of the city from the Taifa of Jaen. (28. February 1246)

The Battle of the Sit River is fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia between the Mongol hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Rus'. (4. March 1238)

Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus in the Battle of Klokotnitsa. (9. March 1230)

Over 200 Cathars are burned after the Fall of Montségur. (16. March 1244)

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, declared himself King of Jerusalem in the Sixth Crusade. (18. March 1229)

Mongols overwhelmed Polish armies in Kraków in the Battle of Chmielnik and plundered the city. (18. March 1241)

Michael IV Autoreianos is appointed Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. (20. March 1206)

The Siege of Château Gaillard ends in a French victory over King John of England, who loses control of Normandy to King Philip II Augustus. (28. March 1204)

During a battle on the ice of Lake Peipus, Russian forces, led by Alexander Nevsky, rebuff an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights. (5. April 1242)

Seventh Crusade: Ayyubids of Egypt capture King Louis IX of France in the Battle of Fariskur. (6. April 1250)

Mongol–Jin War: The Mongols begin their siege on Kaifeng, the capital of the Jin Dynasty. (8. April 1232)

Battle of Liegnitz: Mongol forces defeat the Polish and German armies. (9. April 1241)

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